Interstellar molecules: from solid-state formation to gas-phase detection
Although one would expect molecules and atoms to be frozen out on dust grain surfaces at the low temperatures present in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), many species have actually been detected in the gas phase by astronomical observations. In this paper we study one way to release species into the gas phase, namely via the process of chemical desorption: evaporation caused by the excess energy of an exothermic reaction. Specific emphasis was put on the quantification of the process, in order for it to be implementable in astrochemical models that predict the molecular abundances in space.
Lightning superbolts are the most powerful and rare lightning events. Here, we report electromagnetic observations of superbolts from ground and space measurements, showing their extreme power with 10-1000 times more powerful VLF waves transmitted into space than typical strokes.
The NASA Cassini mission revealed the existence of an ocean and hydrothermal activity underneath the Saturnian moon’s icy surface. Earth's hydrothermal systems team with microbial life. How likely are Enceladus’ hydrothermal vents habitable to Earth-like microorganisms?
You can consent to the use of such technologies by closing this notice.
Customise your preferences for any tracking technology
The following allows you to customize your consent preferences for any tracking technology used
to help us achieve the features and activites described below. To learn more about how these trackers help us